When it comes to blood sugar and weight management, not all sugar substitutes are created equal. Find out which option works best for my health goals.
Sugar product type
Sugar substitutes can satisfy sweet cravings without stabilizing blood sugar.
Taming a sweet tooth can be a challenge for anyone, but it's important for people with type 2 diabetes to watch their carbohydrate intake, including sugar.
Sugar products offer a sweet taste and facilitate the absorption of carbohydrates and blood sugar (sugar). There are many sugar substitutes to choose from, but not all are zero-calorie and their effects on blood sugar vary.
When deciding which sugar substitute to use, remember that there are two types, according to an article published in the journal Diabetes Spectrum:
Nutrients provide calories and may affect blood sugar.
According to a May 2018 review published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, No Nutritive contains little to no calories and does not raise blood sugar. They can be hundreds to thousands of times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar), according to the diabetes testing article above.
But even if you choose a no-calorie sweetener, use it in moderation. According to a study published in the journal Physiology & Behavior, artificial sweeteners can alter your brain's response to sweets and impair your ability to feel satisfied when you eat a sugary food or drink. In fact, the American Diabetes Association recommends that you don't rely on zero-calorie or low-calorie options over sugary options when it comes to beverages in the short-term. but eat as few sweeteners as possible and simply drink more water.
OTHER: How to stabilize blood sugar
Here are nine low-calorie or no-calorie options to consider:
Sucralose (Splenda), the most popular sugar substitute
Splenda sugar substitute for people with type 2 diabetes
This sweetener is good for people with type 2 diabetes because Splenda is 600 times sweeter than sugar, but the little yellow packets don't affect blood sugar, says Keri Glassman, RD, CDN, of Nutritious Life. Diet Exercises in New York. .
In addition, Splenda passes through the body with minimal absorption. According to an October 2016 article in the journal Physiology & Behavior, these properties help make it the most widely used artificial sweetener in the world.
Sucralose is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which recommends an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 5 milligrams (mg) or less sucralose per kilogram (kg) of body weight per day. A person weighing 132 pounds (lb) would need to consume 23 cups of artificial sweeteners per day to reach that limit.
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Saccharin (Sweet 'N Low), the oldest artificial sweetener
sweet and low-sugar substitute for type 2 diabetes
Thomas J. Peterson/Alay
Saccharin, a sweetener sold in pink packaging under the Sweet 'N Low label, contains no calories and is about 300 to 500 times sweeter than sugar, according to Sweet 'N Low's website. Accidentally discovered by chemists in 1879 as a derivative of coal tar, it was the first artificial sweetener, according to Encyclopedia Britannica.
If you've been using artificial sweeteners since the 1970s, you may recall early warning signs that saccharin increases cancer risk. But rest assured it is safe. The research behind the labels was conducted on animals, and additional studies by the National Institutes of Health's National Toxicology Program concluded that sucrose should not be listed as a possible carcinogen. Saccharin is now FDA approved.
According to the Food and Drug Administration, a 132-pound person would need to consume 45 packets of artificial sweeteners per day to meet the ADI of 15 mg of sucrose per pound of body weight.
Aspartame, a low-calorie sweetener not yet suitable for people with PKU
a similar sugar substitute for type 2 diabetics
Sold under the blue brand names Equal and NutraSweet, aspartame is a non-nutritive artificial sweetener that's 200 times sweeter than sugar, according to the FDA. Although aspartame does not contain any calories like other artificial sweeteners, aspartame is still very low in calories.
Although the FDA reviewed scientific studies and concluded that aspartame is safe to consume, Glassman notes that research into the sweetener's safety has also yielded mixed results. "While its low-calorie reputation appeals to most courtroom observers, it has been linked to a number of negative side effects," says Glassman. Some animal studies, including one published in the journal Cytotechnology in December 2014, have shown links to leukemia, lymphoma and breast cancer. "Other studies show a [possible] link to migraines."
However, the American Cancer Society notes that aspartame has been classified as "dangerous" by US and European regulatory agencies, and studies show no increased risk of cancer in humans.
But people with phenylketonuria (PKU), a rare condition in which they can't metabolize phenylalanine (a key component of aspartame), shouldn't consume this sugar substitute, says the NHS. If you don't have PKU, using aspartame is dangerous.
According to the FDA, a 132-pound person would need to consume 75 bags of the artificial sweetener per day to meet the ADI of 50 mg of aspartame per pound of body weight per day.
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Stevia (Truvia or Pure Via), a natural sweetener
Information about sugar substitutes for people with type 2 diabetes
Steviol Glycosides are sweeteners extracted from the leaves of the stevia plant native to Central and South America. Truvia and Pure Via, two types of stevia-based sweeteners, are zero-calorie, and stevia is commonly used as a sweetener in food and beverages. According to the 2019 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, published January 2019 in the journal Diabetes Care, nonessential sweeteners, including stevia, have little or no effect on blood sugar. The FDA has approved the use of certain stevia extracts that are generally recognized as safe (a term used for food additives that are considered safe by qualified experts and are therefore not subject to the normal market surveillance and approval process).
The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center notes that people have reported side effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms after consuming large amounts of stevia. But so far there are no solid scientific studies to back up these claims.
The FDA recommends an ADI for Travia of 4 mg or less per kilogram of body weight per day. A 132-pound person would need to consume nine cans of artificial sweeteners a day to reach that limit.
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Sugar alcohol, a low-calorie alternative for sweetening food
alternative sugar substitutes for people with type 2 diabetes
Sugar alcohols, or polyols, come from natural fiber found in fruits and vegetables, according to the Joslin Diabetes Center. According to the International Food Information Council Foundation, sugar alcohols are sweeteners that are common in many so-called "sugar-free" desserts, candies, and chewing gums:
While sugar alcohols are relatively low in calories and gentler on blood sugar than carbohydrates, they can have a laxative effect and cause indigestion, gas, and diarrhea in some people, according to the FDA. The FDA requires products containing sorbitol and mannitol to carry a warning that excess consumption may cause laxative effects.
Gastrointestinal symptoms are caused by sugar alcohols not being fully absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, says Lynn Krieger, RDN, CDE, medical reviewer for Everyday Health in Prescott, Arizona. He explains that absorbed carbohydrates from these sweeteners travel to the colon, where they are fermented by gut bacteria to produce gas. See how you react to small amounts before adding it to your daily diet.
Also note that sugar alcohols contain carbohydrates and are nutritional sweeteners, so they can affect blood sugar.
"It's important for people with diabetes to read the entire carbohydrate nutritional label and plan accordingly," Krieger says. "Remember that nutritional labeling is based on one serving and it's easy to eat more than one serving of foods that contain sugar alcohols, which can increase your total carbohydrate intake." According to the University of California, San Francisco, a general rule of thumb when counting carbohydrates for diabetes management is to cut in half the sugar and alcohol carbohydrates listed on the nutrition label.
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Erythritol, a sugar alcohol with fewer side effects than other alternatives
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Erythritol is also a sugar-alcohol-based sweetener, but unlike the others, it contains less than 1 calorie per gram, according to the International Food Information Council Foundation, and doesn't have a major impact on blood sugar. According to the American Diabetes Association. It is an ingredient in the stevia-based sweetener Trivia, sold under the brand name Swerve. Swish mate mugs into cups like sugar and can be used as table sugar or in cooking and baking recipes that call for sugar.
If other sugar alcohol sweeteners cause stomach upset, this might be a better option for you. You are more likely to experience bloating, bloating and diarrhea, which is the result of intestinal fermentation. According to previous studies, only about 10% of the discharge from urethritis reaches the colon. The rest leaves the body with urine.
There is no set ADI for erythritol, but the FDA has not questioned the erythritol manufacturers' claim that the sweetener was "generally recognized as safe."
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Donut Fruit Sweetener, another natural alternative to sweeteners
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Also known as Luo Han Guo Brut Extract and Serratia Grosvenor Swingle Fruit Extract, this non-nutritive sweetener is derived from a plant native to southern China. The extract contains 0 calories per serving, according to the International Food Information Council Foundation, and is 150-200 times sweeter than sugar, according to the FDA. Popular brands include Monk Fruit in the Raw and Lakat. The FDA did not dispute the fruit dessert manufacturers' claims that the extract was "generally recognized as safe." The agency does not set ADI values for donut sweeteners.
Acesulfame potassium, a popular dietary sugar substitute
Sugar product type 2-08-722 x 406
Also known as Ace-K, this non-nutrient is FDA approved and about 200 times sweeter than sugar. Manufacturers often combine it with other sweeteners, although it is also sold at the table under the Sweet One brand. You can also find it in some of your favorite food brands, like Coca-Cola Zero Sugar in Diet Mountain Dew. The FDA recommends an ADI of 15 mg or less of Ace-K per pound of body weight per day.
A 132-pound person would need to consume 23 packets of artificial sweeteners a day to hit that limit.
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Cellulose (Dolce Prima), a new artificial sweetener no longer considered an added sugar
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Cellulose (also known as D-cellulose or D-physiothe, according to the US National Library of Medicine) is a very low-calorie sweetener found naturally in small amounts in wheat, raisins, dried figs, brown sugar, and molasses. FDA. Marketed under the Dorsia Prima brand (manufactured by Tate & Lyle, makers of Splenda), it contains 90% fewer calories than sucrose and is 70% sweeter.
Dolce Prima can be found in Magic Spoon cereals sold online; and expect to see it in beverages, desserts, candies, yogurt, and other goodies soon. That's because the FDA gave cellulose a big thumbs-up in April 2019 when the agency said it could be excluded from total sugars and added sugars listed on nutrition labels in the future.
"The latest data shows that aloe differs from other sugars in that the human body does not metabolize it in the same way as table sugar," said Dr. Susan Mayne, director of the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. "It contains fewer calories, causes negligible increases in blood sugar or insulin levels, and does not contribute to tooth decay."
Under the revised guidelines, manufacturers can use a caloric value of 0.4 calories per gram to calculate the total calories in a serving of cellulose, instead of the previous 4 calories per gram. However, the sweetener should be included in the total number of carbohydrates listed. Although cellulose is not on the FDA's list of approved sweeteners, the agency has not challenged manufacturers' claims that the sweetener is "generally recognized as safe."
However, according to an April 2019 article in Food Manufacture, the European Union has not yet approved cellulose, and Canada has not added it to its list of approved sweeteners. Additionally, research into its effectiveness in controlling blood sugar has been limited to small studies, such as B. A small, randomized, double-blind study published in Nutrients journal in June 2018 and funded by Tate & Lyle. The authors concluded that low doses (5 or 10 g) of cellulose had no significant effect on blood glucose as measured by standard glucose tolerance tests, but recommended larger samples for future studies.
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One final comment on the use of sugar substitutes in the treatment of type 2 diabetes
As you can see, there are many artificial sweeteners that can help you reach your blood sugar goals. Remember that it's easier to maintain if you stay in moderation and don't get tempted to overindulge in sugary foods and drinks. "A big goal should be to reduce all types of sweeteners in your diet, including sugar substitutes, so you get used to the natural sweet taste of foods," says Griega. Then trust your body to tell you when enough is enough.