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The invention and history of television
02 martie 2022

The invention and history of television

    The invention of television is the culmination of a long process of discoveries and inventions made in the late nineteenth century. On January 26, 1926, the first public broadcast of television images of the Scotsman John Logie Baird took place. Television has seen astonishing development since the 1950s, gaining color and being invited in most homes. media , TV has seen its offer considerably refined since the 2000s due to the widespread digitalization, in which this dean of information and entertainment did not skimp.

Invention of Television   

Among the forerunners of television is Willoughby Smith, who in 1873 demonstrated the photoconductivity of selenium. In 1880, the Frenchman Maurice Leblanc emphasized the principles of television as we know it today. To transmit motion pictures, German engineer Paul Nipkow developed the first fast scanning system (the Nipkow disk) in 1884. This rotating disk system was rapidly improved with the invention of the photoelectric cell by the Germans Julius Elster and Hans Geitel in 1889. compatriot Karl Ferdinand Braun developed a decisive invention, the cathode ray tube, in 1897. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909.

Following Baird's public demonstration in 1926, Russian-American Vladimir Zworykin unveiled the kinescope where the cathode ray tube screen is located. The ray tube becomes the small television screen or the television. This more modern and coherent device was adopted, especially by the British company EMI, and operated by the BBC in 1936, the first television for the general public, which Baird marketed without much success in 1930. The first receivers appeared in the United States. America in 1941; color television will see the light of day there in 1953 (and in Europe in the early 1960s). Broadcast satellites provide long-distance transmissions. 

History of television:

If the development of television stopped during World War II, mobilizing electronic resources for the military effort, it resumed as soon as the conflict ended. Electronics giant RCA (Radio Corporation of America) funded the first steps of television in the United States. In the early 1960s, 88% of American homes were equipped. That's $ 1.3 billion a year in advertising.

Although a transmitter was installed at the top of the Eiffel Tower in 1937 and a service broadcast live from the World's Fair, the state's telecommunications monopoly prevented the development of French television. ORTFs provided a limited number of channels and broadcast hours for a long time. In the early 1960s and 1970s, television history accelerated. On July 21, 1969, the "First Steps to the Moon" live broadcast was watched by over six hundred million viewers worldwide. This show symbolizes the era of mass television. The appearance of the new open television channels was the competition and the race for listeners, viewers. The needs of the public then prevailed over the educational needs of the old monopoly and public service of television.

In the early 1980s, television gained some more autonomy with the creation of new regulations for the audiovisual scene, with the task of guaranteeing the pluralism of the audiovisual media and freedom of expression. 

Television in the digital age

The opening up to the private sector in the mid-1980s gave a new impetus to the development of television with a wider but not always quality offer. Above all, it was the arrival and generalization of digital in 2005 and the Internet that profoundly disrupted the supply and forms of television consumption. Netflix's on-demand television, founded in 1997, or even the popularization podcast the radio redefine a successful offering.

The small screen, the TV that has become bigger and flatter over time, is now facing competition from other devices such as the smartphone.

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