Web addresses are one of the three most common inventions of the World Wide Web, and according to its inventors. They are known to the general public in the form of tags about ten characters long, usually starting with "www" (an acronym for the World Wide Web) that identify a web page; for example www.example.com. In fact, this is a simplification of the technically correct syntax that is http://www.example.com.
In technical jargon, we are not talking about a web address, but about a URL (for a Uniform Resource Locator or a Uniform Resource Locator), a URI (for a Uniform Resource Identifier or a Uniform Resource Identifier), or more rarely, to URNE. Technical names refer to a syntax defined by Internet standards, in particular RFC 1738, RFC 2396 and RFC 3986. U for "uniform", which originally meant universal (RFC 1630), almost underlines the properties from the address. from these addresses: Usenet forum, mailbox, FTP site, etc.; or almost anything available on the Internet and beyond, such as models, books, etc.
Web addresses should not be confused with email addresses or IP addresses. The name of the Internet address can refer to a web address, but is actually completely ambiguous.
Invention The three inventions behind the web are:
Communication protocol Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Web resources can be transferred to another HTTP protocol, such as a protocol or file transfer. It can also be in a non-HTML data format, such as. B. Plain text, digital image, etc. However, to be identified and accessible it must be provided in the form of a web address.
The resource is an HTML document accessible via the HTTP protocolHTML accessible
The resource is anvia the FTP protocol Document
http.: // www .example.com / i.png
The resource is a Portable Network Graphics (PNG) image that the HTTP protocol at
can be accessed using http://www.example.com/i.png
The resource is an accessible PNG image from the FTP protocol
In professional circles, web addresses are known by different names: WWW address, Universal Document Identifier, Universal Resource Identifiers and finally divided into Uniform Resource Locator and Name, all of which are Uniform Resource Identifiers are. The URL abbreviation is used in the HTML 3.2 standard and is the most well known and used by technicians.
Various franchises were offered by national organizations. The computer science and internet vocabulary published in the Official Journal of March 16, 1999 by the General Commission on Terminology and Neology of France  suggested "network address" and "universal address". These two names were rejected by the Office québécois de la langue française because of their inaccuracy and have not become commonplace. The Québécois de la langue française Office provides  "URL", "URL", "Web address" and "W3 address". Please note that the "web address" is generally only used for site resources, while the URL abbreviation underlines the universality of these addresses which Usenet forums, FTP sites, etc. can identify. The public is also used to confusing the web address, email address, and IP address. To avoid all of this ambiguity, web professionals often use the abbreviation "URL" even when it actually refers to URIs.
The original name that the web inventor gave the web addresses was Universal Document Identifier (UDI) . In the summer of 1992 he proposed that the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standardize these IDUs, but the name "universal" was dropped as too "arrogant" for a project as young as the Web. Identifier) It is the resulting commitment.
When URIs were standardized, it became clear that in practice web addresses do not identify documents, but the location of documents. In other words, when a document is moved, its address changes. The practical result is that all of the hyperlinks in this document are broken, an HTTP 404 error.
With this in mind, it was decided to designate web addresses as Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). The idea was to standardize two types of URIs: URLs would be URIs that indicate "how" (on which network route) a resource is accessed; Uniform Resource Names (URNs) would be URIs that identify the same documents forever, no matter where they are.
However, Tim Berners Lee insisted that web addresses should, at least in theory, be made universal. He also discovered that the IETF was wasting time talking, and in June 1994 published RFC 1630, Universal Resource Identifiers, on the web. This first RFC on web addresses belongs to the information category. It simply describes the practice of the time and contains some errors.
http: // example.com/a/ pagepage
domain name communication protocol HTTP server HTTP path.
The concept of the web address is closely related to that of the URL. Officially, the web allows you to link to any identifiable resource with a URL. Since any website can be linked or displayed if its URL is known, the more important term "website" quickly emerged. However, the concept of the URL is broader; it allows you to "target" resources from outside the web, such as Usenet forums or mailboxes (using an email address in the URL). Therefore, a URL is not necessarily a web address. On the other hand, a web address can be written in a simplified form that includes only part of a URL.
Compatibility with web browsers.
In the early years of the web, web browsers only accepted URLs to identify resources. But with the development of the web, the HTTP communication protocol has become indispensable for the transmission of the vast majority of the consulted resources. Therefore, the URL of a website almost always starts with http: //. So web browsers have evolved to allow you to skip these characters as you type in the address bar. are added automatically if necessary. Then a web address like example.com/une/page is automatically converted to the URL http://example.com/une/page. Some browsers even enter an address like http://www.example.com/, but the risk of entering incorrectly is no longer negligible.
A web address abbreviated as a domain name, such as www.example.com or example.com, is often considered a website, although technically it is the address of a (home) page: the root page (/) of the domain (example. com). The domain name is the most important part of a web address; It is mainly used in advertising. During the internet bubble, some companies and some software programs adopted the website address as the company name (Amazon.com, OpenOffice.org, etc.). Domain names are subject to a specific number and article.